Code Word “Courage”: Black Underground Resistance Fighters in Poland, Italy, and France

Written by Robert Fikes, Jr., Emeritus Librarian, San Diego State University A rather astonishing and unexpected aspect of World War II was the appearance of African and Caribbean-born partisan fighters in Nazi-occupied Europe. White underground resistance fighters, spies, saboteurs, even anti-fascist assassins have been portrayed in movies as romantic, resourceful,